Archive for the ‘Tips & Tricks’ Category

Breaking into iOS 11

Tuesday, February 20th, 2018

In the world of mobile forensics, physical acquisition is still the way to go. Providing significantly more information compared to logical extraction, physical acquisition can return sandboxed app data (even for apps that disabled backups), downloaded mail, Web browser cache, chat histories, comprehensive location history, system logs and much more.

In order to extract all of that from an i-device, you’ll need the extraction tool (iOS Forensic Toolkit) and a working jailbreak. With Apple constantly tightening security of its mobile ecosystem, jailbreaking becomes increasingly more difficult. Without a bug hunter at Google’s Project Zero, who released the “tfp0” proof-of-concept iOS exploit, making a working iOS 11 jailbreak would take the community much longer, or would not be possible.

The vulnerability exploited in tfp0 was present in all versions of iOS 10 on all 32-bit and 64-bit devices. It was also present in early versions of iOS 11. The last vulnerable version was iOS 11.2.1. Based on the tfp0 exploit, various teams have released their own versions of jailbreaks.

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Get iOS Shared Files without a Jailbreak

Tuesday, February 20th, 2018

iOS is a locked down mobile operating system that does not allow its apps to directly access files in the file system. Unlike every other major mobile OS, iOS does not have a “shared” area in the file system to allow apps keep and share files with other apps. Yet, individual iOS apps are allowed to let the user access their files by using the file sharing mechanism.

While uploading or downloading shared files from an Android or Windows 10 smartphone occurs over a standard MTP connection established over a standard USB cable, you’ll need several hundred megabytes worth of proprietary Apple software (and a proprietary Lightning cable) to transfer files between iOS apps and the computer. But do you really?

While there’s nothing we can do about a Lightning cable, we can at least get rid of iTunes middleware for extracting files exposed by iOS apps. We’ll show you how this works with iOS Forensic Toolkit 3.0.

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How to Instantly Access BitLocker, TrueCrypt, PGP and FileVault 2 Volumes

Wednesday, January 31st, 2018

It’s been a long while since we made an update to one of our most technically advanced tools, Elcomsoft Forensic Disk Decryptor (EFDD). With this tool, one could extract data from an encrypted disk volume (FileVault 2, PGP, BitLocker or TrueCrypt) by utilizing the binary encryption key contained in the computer’s RAM. We could find and extract that key by analyzing the memory dump or hibernation files.

What Elcomsoft Forensic Disk Decryptor did not do until now was pretty much everything else. It couldn’t use plain text passwords to mount or decrypt encrypted volumes, and it didn’t support escrow (recovery) keys. It didn’t come with a memory imaging tool of its own, making its users rely on third-party solutions.

With today’s release, Elcomsoft Forensic Disk Decryptor gets back on its feets, including everything that was missing in earlier versions. Plain text passwords and recovery keys, a Microsoft-signed kernel-level RAM imaging tool, the highly anticipated portable version and support for the industry-standard EnCase .E01 and encrypted DMG images are now available. But that’s not everything! We completely revamped the way you use the tool by automatically identifying all available encrypted volumes, and providing detailed information about the encryption method used for each volume.

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What’s New in iOS 11 Security: the Quick Reference Guide

Thursday, December 21st, 2017

iOS 11 introduced multiple changes to its security model. Some of these changes are highly welcome, while we aren’t exactly fond of some others. In this quick reference guide, we tried to summarize all the changes introduced by iOS 11 in the security department.

Compared to iOS 10 and earlier versions of the system, iOS 11 introduced the following security changes:

–  Reset password to local backups (passcode required), which makes logical acquisition trivial

–  For 2FA accounts, reset Apple ID password and change trusted phone number with just device passcode (possible for both iOS 11 and iOS 10)

–  Health data sync with iCloud (users can disable)

+  Passcode required to establish trust relationship with a PC (Touch ID/Face ID can no longer be used to pair)

+  Quickly and discretely disable Touch ID/Face ID via S.O.S. mode

+  Automatically call emergency number (push side button 5 times in rapid succession)

+  iOS 11 strongly suggests enabling Two-Factor Authentication in multiple places

+  Two-Step Verification (2SV) is no longer available

Additionally, in macOS High Sierra, Desktop and Documents folders now sync with iCloud (user can disable).

Extracting and Using iCloud Authentication Tokens

Thursday, November 30th, 2017

In our previous blog post, we wrote everything we know about authentication tokens and Anisette data, which might allow you to bypass the “login, password and two-factor authentication” sequence. Let us have a look at how you can actually extract those tokens from a trusted computer and use them on a different computer to access a user’s iCloud account. Read Part 1 and Part 2 of the series.

Extracting Authentication Tokens from a Live System (Windows)

Extracting authentication token from a live system is as easy as running a small, stand-alone executable file you get as part of the Elcomsoft Phone Breaker package. The tool is called ATEX (atex.exe on Windows), and stands for Authentication Token Extractor.

Using the tools is extremely simple. Make sure you are logged on under the user you’re about to extract the token from, and launch ATEX with no arguments. The file named “icloud_token_<timestamp>.txt” will be created in the same folder where you launch the tool from (or C:\Users\<user_name>\AppData\Local\Temp if there are not enough permissions).

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iCloud Authentication Tokens Inside Out

Thursday, November 30th, 2017

iCloud authentication tokens in particular are difficult to grasp. What are they, what tools are they created with, where they are stored, and how and when they can be used are questions that we’re being asked a lot. Let’s try to put things together. Read Part 1 of the series.

What Authentication Tokens Are and What They Aren’t

And authentication token is a piece of data that allows the client (iCloud for Windows, Elcomsoft Phone Breaker etc.) to connect to iCloud servers without providing a login and password for every request. This piece of data is stored in a small file, and that file can be used to spare the user from entering their login and password during the current and subsequent sessions.

On the other hand, authentication tokens do not contain a password. They don’t contain a hashed password either. In other words, a token cannot be used to attack the password.

What They Are Good For and How to Use

Authentication tokens may be used instead of the login and password (and secondary authentication factor) to access information stored in the user’s iCloud account. This information includes:

  • iCloud backups (however, tokens expire quickly)
  • iCloud Photo Library, including access to deleted photos
  • Call logs
  • Notes, calendars, contacts, and a lot of other information

Using iCloud authentication tokens is probably the most interesting part. You can use an authentication token in Elcomsoft Phone Breaker Forensic to sign in to Apple iCloud and use iCloud services (download cloud backups, photos, synchronized data etc.) without knowing the user’s Apple ID password and without having to deal with Two-Factor Authentication.

Authentication tokens can be used for:

  • Signing in to iCloud services
  • Without Apple ID password
  • Without having to pass Two-Factor Authentication

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Breaking Apple iCloud: Reset Password and Bypass Two-Factor Authentication

Tuesday, November 28th, 2017

Who am I to tell you to use two-factor authentication on all accounts that support it? This recommendation coming from someone whose business is supplying law enforcement with tools helping them do their job might be taken with a grain of salt by an average consumer. Yet we still strongly believe that, however good a password you have to encrypt your local documents or NAS drives, any remotely popular online service absolutely requires an additional authentication factor.

We covered the risks related to passwords more than once. There is no lack of horror stories floating on the Internet, ranging from leaking private photos to suddenly losing access to all data and devices registered on a certain account. Today, smartphones store excessive amounts of information. If any of that data is synced with a cloud, the data will be shared with something other than just your device.

So what is that “other” thing that you need to secure access to your account? It might be something you have in addition to something you know. Something that cannot be easily stolen or accessed remotely. This is exactly what two-factor authentication is for.

All three major mobile companies, Apple, Google and Microsoft, offer very different implementations of two-factor authentication. Speaking Google, you have several convenient options: SMS (which is not really secure, and Google knows it), the recently added Google Prompt, the classic Google Authenticator app, printable backup codes, FIDO keys and a few more. (Spoiler: if you are on a different side and need to extract the data as opposed to protecting it, we have an app for that).

What about Apple? There are a few things you should definitely know about Apple’s implementation. The problem with Apple is that Apple accounts protected with two-factor authentication can be actually less secure at some points. Surprised? Keep reading.

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The Future of Android Security: Why Google Pushes Away from SMS to Prompt Verification

Thursday, November 23rd, 2017

Google has started its journey on convincing people to move away from SMS-based verification, and start receiving push messages via the Google Prompt instead of using six-digit codes. Why does Google want us away from SMS, and why using Google Prompt instead? Let’s try to find out.

SMS Are Insecure, Aren’t They?

In late July 2016, the US National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST) released an updated set of guidelines that deprecated SMS as a way to deliver two factor authentication because of their many insecurities. A year later, NIST took it back, no longer recommending to “deprecate” SMS usage. Are we, or are we not at risk if we choose to have our two-factor authentication delivered over the (arguably) insecure SMS channel?

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iOS 11 Makes Logical Acquisition Trivial, Allows Resetting iTunes Backup Password

Thursday, November 9th, 2017

Since early days of iOS, iTunes-style system backups could be protected with a password. The password was always the property of the device; if the backup was protected with a password, it would come out encrypted. It didn’t matter whether one made a backup with iTunes, iOS Forensic Toolkit or other forensic software during the course of logical acquisition; if a backup password was enabled, all you’d get would be a stream of encrypted data.

Password protection of iOS system backups was always a hallmark of iOS data protection. We praised Apple for making it tougher for unauthorized persons to pair an iPhone to the computer in iOS 11. Today we discovered something that works in reverse, making it possible for anyone who can unlock an iPhone to simply reset the backup password. Is this so big of a deal? Prior to this discovery, forensic specialists would have to use high-end hardware to try recovering the original backup password at a rate of just several passwords per second, meaning that even the simplest password would require years to break. Today, it just takes a few taps to get rid of that password completely. If you know the passcode, logical acquisition now becomes a trivial and guaranteed endeavor.

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The iPhone is Locked-Down: Dealing with Cold Boot Situations

Thursday, November 9th, 2017

Even today, seizing and storing portable electronic devices is still troublesome. The possibility of remote wipe routinely makes police officers shut down smartphones being seized in an attempt to preserve evidence. While this strategy used to work just a few short years ago, this strategy is counter-productive today with full-disk encryption. In all versions of iOS since iOS 8, this encryption is based on the user’s passcode. Once the iPhone is powered off, the encryption key is lost, and the only way to decrypt the phone’s content is unlocking the device with the user’s original passcode. Or is it?

The Locked iPhone

The use of Faraday bags is still sporadic, and the risk of losing evidence through a remote wipe command is well-known. Even today, many smartphones are delivered to the lab in a powered-off state. Investigating an iPhone after it has been powered off is the most difficult and, unfortunately, the most common situation for a forensic professional. Once the iOS device is powered on after being shut down, or if it simply reboots, the data partition remains encrypted until the moment the user unlocks the device with their passcode. Since encryption keys are based on the passcode, most information remains encrypted until first unlock. Most of it, but not all. (more…)