ElcomSoft blog

«…Everything you wanted to know about password recovery, data decryption,
mobile & cloud forensics…»

Archive for the ‘Tips & Tricks’ Category

USB Restricted Mode Inside Out

Thursday, July 12th, 2018

It’s been a lot of hype around the new Apple security measure (USB restricted mode) introduced in iOS 11.4.1. Today we’ll talk about how we tested the new mode, what are the implications, and what we like and dislike about it. If you are new to the topic, consider reading our blog articles first (in chronological order):

To make a long story short: apparently, Apple was unable to identify and patch vulnerabilities allowing to break passcodes. Instead, they got this idea to block USB data connection after a period of time, so no data transfer can even occur after a certain “inactivity” period (keep reading about the definition of “inactivity”). It is somehow similar to how Touch ID/Face ID expire from time to time, so you can only use the passcode if you did not unlock the device for a period of time. Same for USB now.

(more…)

Apple Warns Users against Jailbreaking iOS Devices: True or False?

Monday, July 2nd, 2018

Apple has an article on their official Web site, warning users against jailbreaking iOS devices. The article “Unauthorized modification of iOS can cause security vulnerabilities, instability, shortened battery life, and other issues” is available at https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201954. How much truth is in that article, and is jailbreaking as dangerous as Apple claims? We’ll comment the article based on our extensive experience in jailbreaking more than a hundred devices running every version of iOS imaginable.

Security Vulnerabilities

Apple introduces the concept of jailbreaking by stating the following: “iOS is designed to be reliable and secure from the moment you turn on your device. Built-in security features protect against malware and viruses and help to secure access to personal information and corporate data. Unauthorized modifications to iOS (also known as “jailbreaking”) bypass security features and can cause numerous issues to the hacked iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch” (HT201954). According to Apple, jailbreaking introduces security vulnerabilities by “…eliminating security layers designed to protect your personal information and your iOS device.

True. Jailbreaking is a process that is specifically designed to circumvent security layers designed to protect information on iOS devices. In fact, this is exactly why we need a jailbreak for tools such as Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit to operate. Without a jailbreak, we would not be able to access the file system, extract sandboxed app data or decrypt the keychain (including items secured with the highest protection class). Installing a jailbreak, on the other hand, allows us doing all of that – and more. (more…)

Breaking Deeper Into iPhone Secrets

Wednesday, June 20th, 2018

iPhone protection becomes tougher with each iteration. The passcode is extremely hard to break, and it’s just the first layer of defense. Even if the device is unlocked or if you know the passcode, it is not that easy and sometimes impossible to access all the data stored on the device. This includes, for example, conversations in Signal, one of the most secure messengers. Apple did a very good job as a privacy and security advocate.

This is why we brought our attention to cloud acquisition. We pioneered iCloud backup extraction several years ago, and we are working hard to acquire more data from the cloud: from the standard categories available at www.icloud.com (such as contacts, notes, calendars, photos and more) to hidden records as call logs, Apple Maps places and routes, third-party application data stored on iCloud drive (not accessible by any other means), iCloud keychain (the real gem!), and recently Messages (with iOS 11.4, they can be synced too).

Cloud acquisition is not as easy as it sounds. First, you need the user’s credentials – Apple ID and password at very least, and often the second authentication factor. Additionally, for some categories (such as the keychain and messages), you’ll also need the passcode of one of the ‘trusted’ devices. But even having all of those, you will still face the undocumented iCloud protocols, encryption (usually based on well-known standard algorithms, but sometimes with custom modifications), different data storage formats, code obfuscation and hundreds of other issues. We learned how to fool Two-Factor Authentication and extract and the authentication tokens from desktops. We are playing “cat and mouse” with Apple while they are trying to lock iCloud accounts when detecting that our software is being used to access the data. We have to monitor Apple’s changes and updates almost 24/7, installing every single beta version of iOS.

iCloud acquisition gives fantastic results. In most cases, you do not need the device itself (it may be lost or forgotten, or thousands miles away). You can obtain deleted data that is not stored on any physical device anymore. You can obtain tons of valuable evidence from all the devices connected to the account.

But as always, there are some “buts”. Sorry for the long intro, and let’s proceed to what we have done about iPhone physical acquisition.

(more…)

iCloud and iMessage Security Concerns

Thursday, June 14th, 2018

We also trust these companies in ways that we do not understand yet. How many of you trust Apple? No voting… Just me 🙂 Damn! OK. May I ask you a very good question. Trusting to do what? Trusting when they say: “iMessages are end-to-end encrypted”? I mean, with all of that massive security engineering, to make sure it’s as good as it can be, so they genuinely believe they’ve done that. I do, generally, they’re great people. But… people believe themselves they can defend themselves against the Russians. If the Russians specifically targeted Apple, it’s only they can defend themselves.Ian Levy, director at the GCHQ on anniversary of the foundation of the FIPR event that was held on 29/04/2018).

This is probably just a co-incident, but “the Russians” are concerned about iCloud security, too.

(more…)

Apple Strikes Back: the iPhone Cracking Challenge

Friday, May 11th, 2018

We live in the era of mobile devices with full-disk encryption, dedicated security co-processors and multiple layers of security designed to prevent device exploitation. The recent generations of Apple mobile devices running iOS 10 and 11 are especially secure, effectively resisting experts’ efforts to extract evidence. Yet, several solutions are known to counter Apple’s security measures even in iOS 11 and even for the last-generation devices. It is not surprising that Apple comes up with counter measures to restrict the effectiveness and usability of such methods, particularly by disabling USB data connection in iOS 11.4 after prolonged inactivity periods (well, in fact it is still in question whether this feature will be available in new iOS version or not; it seems it is not ready yet, and may be delayed till iOS 12).

Today, we’ll discuss the main challenges of iOS forensics, look at some of the most interesting solutions available to law enforcement, and share our experience gaining access to some of the most securely protected evidence stored in Apple iOS devices. (more…)

Demystifying Advanced Logical Acquisition

Tuesday, April 3rd, 2018

We were attending the DFRWS EU forum in beautiful Florence, and held a workshop on iOS forensics. During the workshop, an attendee tweeted a photo of the first slide of our workshop, and the first response was from… one of our competitors. He said “Looking forward to the “Accessing a locked device” slide”. You can follow our conversation on Twitter, it is worth reading.

No, we cannot break the iPhone passcode. Still, sometimes we can get the data out of a locked device. The most important point is: we never keep our methods secret. We always provide full disclosure about what we do, how our software works, what the limitations are, and what exactly you can expect if you use this and that tool. Speaking of Apple iCloud, we even reveal technical information about Apple’s network and authentication protocols, data storage formats and encryption. If we cannot do something, we steer our customers to other companies (including competitors) who could help. Such companies include Oxygen Forensics (the provider of one of the best mobile forensic products) and Passware (the developer of excellent password cracking tools and our direct competitor).

Let’s start with “Logical acquisition”. We posted about it more than once, but it never hurts to go over it again. By “Logical acquisition”, vendors usually mean nothing more than making an iTunes-style backup of the phone, full stop.

Then, there is that “advanced logical” advertised by some forensic companies. There’s that “method 2” acquisition technique and things with similarly cryptic names. What is that all about?

I am not the one to tell you how other software works (not because I don’t know, but because I don’t feel it would be ethical), but I’ll share information on how we do it with our software: the methods we use, the limitations, and the expected outcome.

(more…)

What’s Broken in iOS for iPhone X

Wednesday, March 28th, 2018

Apple’s latest and greatest iPhone, the iPhone X, received mixed reviews and sells slower than expected. While the high price of the new iPhone is a major factor influencing the slow sales, some of the negative points come from the device usability. The combination of design language, hardware and software interactions make using the new iPhone less than intuitive in many situations. In this article, we collected the list of utterly strange design decisions affecting the daily use of the iPhone X.

The Return of Slide to Unlock

In iOS 10, Apple has finally rid of the infamous “slide to unlock” prompt, replacing it with the prompt to that asks iPhone users (as well as users of Touch ID equipped iPads) to press the home button to gain access to the home screen. This means that, by default, users could no longer simply rest their finger on the home button to unlock their device with their fingerprint.

A workaround was discovered quickly. Apparently, it was possible to alter the “Rest Finger to Open” option in General > Accessibility > Home Button to make iPhones capable of “raise-to-wake” unlock without pressing down on the home button.

This option is still present in iOS 11, and still works on all devices equipped with Touch ID – but not Face ID. The iPhone X is the only device in Apple’s stable that cannot be automatically unlocked when picked up. Users must still reach for the very bottom of the device’s screen and… yes: swipe up to unlock. This feels like a huge step back to pre-iOS 10 days, and annoys many users.

(more…)

iPhone X Eye Strain: How to Stop OLED Flickering in Just Three Clicks

Monday, March 5th, 2018

The iPhone X uses a new (for Apple) display technology. For the first time ever, Apple went with an OLED display instead of the IPS panels used in all other iPhones. While OLED displays have numerous benefits such as the true blacks and wide color gamut, the majority of OLED displays (particularly those made by Samsung) tend to flicker. The flickering is particularly visible at low brightness levels, causing eyestrain and headaches to sensitive users. Very few users have the slightest idea of what’s going on, attributing these health issues to oversaturated colors, the oh-so-harmful blue light and anything but OLED flickering.

So let us have a look at what OLED flickering is and how to get rid of it on the iPhone X for much better low-light readability.

(more…)

Breaking into iOS 11

Tuesday, February 20th, 2018

In the world of mobile forensics, physical acquisition is still the way to go. Providing significantly more information compared to logical extraction, physical acquisition can return sandboxed app data (even for apps that disabled backups), downloaded mail, Web browser cache, chat histories, comprehensive location history, system logs and much more.

In order to extract all of that from an i-device, you’ll need the extraction tool (iOS Forensic Toolkit) and a working jailbreak. With Apple constantly tightening security of its mobile ecosystem, jailbreaking becomes increasingly more difficult. Without a bug hunter at Google’s Project Zero, who released the “tfp0” proof-of-concept iOS exploit, making a working iOS 11 jailbreak would take the community much longer, or would not be possible.

The vulnerability exploited in tfp0 was present in all versions of iOS 10 on all 32-bit and 64-bit devices. It was also present in early versions of iOS 11. The last vulnerable version was iOS 11.2.1. Based on the tfp0 exploit, various teams have released their own versions of jailbreaks.

(more…)

Get iOS Shared Files without a Jailbreak

Tuesday, February 20th, 2018

iOS is a locked down mobile operating system that does not allow its apps to directly access files in the file system. Unlike every other major mobile OS, iOS does not have a “shared” area in the file system to allow apps keep and share files with other apps. Yet, individual iOS apps are allowed to let the user access their files by using the file sharing mechanism.

While uploading or downloading shared files from an Android or Windows 10 smartphone occurs over a standard MTP connection established over a standard USB cable, you’ll need several hundred megabytes worth of proprietary Apple software (and a proprietary Lightning cable) to transfer files between iOS apps and the computer. But do you really?

While there’s nothing we can do about a Lightning cable, we can at least get rid of iTunes middleware for extracting files exposed by iOS apps. We’ll show you how this works with iOS Forensic Toolkit 3.0.

(more…)