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Posts Tagged ‘EIFT’

Extended Mobile Forensics: Analyzing Desktop Computers

Tuesday, July 30th, 2019

When it comes to mobile forensics, experts are analyzing the smartphone itself with possible access to cloud data. However, extending the search to the user’s desktop and laptop computers may (and possibly will) help accessing information stored both in the physical smartphone and in the cloud. In this article we’ll list all relevant artefacts that can shed light to smartphone data. The information applies to Apple iOS devices as well as smartphones running Google Android.

Mobile Artefacts on Desktops and Laptops

Due to the sheer capacity, computer storage may contain significantly more evidence than a smartphone. However, that would be a different kind of evidence compared to timestamped and geotagged usage data we’ve come to expect from modern smartphones.

How can the user’s PC or Mac help mobile forensic experts? There several types of evidence that can help us retrieve data from the phone or the cloud.

  1. iTunes backups. While this type of evidence is iPhone-specific (or, rather, Apple-specific), a local backup discovered on the user’s computer can become an invaluable source of evidence.
  2. Saved passwords. By instantly extracting passwords stored in the user’s Web browser (Chrome, Edge, IE or Safari), one can build a custom dictionary for breaking encryption. More importantly, one can use stored credentials for signing in to the user’s iCloud or Google Account and performing a cloud extraction.
  3. Email account. An email account can be used to reset a password to the user’s Apple or Google account (with subsequent cloud extraction using the new credentials).
  4. Authentication tokens. These can be used to access synchronized data in the user’s iCloud account (tokens must be used on the user’s computer; on macOS, transferable unrestricted tokens may be extracted). There are also tokens for Google Drive (can be used to access files in the user’s Google Drive account) and Google Account (can be used to extract a lot of data from the user’s Google Account). The computer itself is also an artefact as certain authentication tokens are “pinned” to a particular piece of hardware and cannot be transferred to another device. If the computer is a “trusted” device, it can be used for bypassing two-factor authentication.

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iOS 13 (Beta) Forensics

Thursday, July 25th, 2019

iOS 13 is on the way. While the new mobile OS is still in beta, so far we have not discovered many revolutionary changes in the security department. At the same time, there are quite a few things forensic specialists will need to know about the new iteration of Apple’s mobile operating system. In this article, we’ll be discussing the changes and their meaning for the mobile forensics.

iCloud backups

We’ve seen several changes to iCloud backups that break third-party tools not designed with iOS 13 in mind. Rest assured we’ve updated our tools to support iOS 13 iCloud backups already. We don’t expect the backup format to change once iOS 13 is officially released, yet we keep an eye on them.

First, Apple has changed the protocol and encryption. There’s nothing major, but those changes were more than enough to effectively block all third-party tools without explicit support for iOS 13.

Second, cloud backups (at least in the current beta) now contain pretty much the same set of info as unencrypted local backups. Particularly missing from iCloud backups made with iOS 13 devices are call logs and Safari history. This information is now stored exclusively as “synchronized data”, which makes it even more important for the investigator to extract synced evidence in addition to backups. Interestingly, nothing was changed about synced data; you can still use the same tools and sign in with either Apple ID/password/2FA or authentication tokens. (more…)

Apple Watch Forensics 02: Analysis

Wednesday, June 26th, 2019

Over the last several years, the use of smart wearables has increased significantly. With 141 million smartwatch units sold in 2018, the number of smart wearables sold has nearly doubled compared to the year before. Among the various competitors, the Apple Watch is dominating the field with more than 22.5 million of wearable devices sold in 2018. Year over year, the Apple Watch occupies nearly half of the global market.

During the years, starting from 2015, Apple manufactured five different models with WatchOS, a wearable OS based on iOS and specifically developed for the Apple Watch.

Some initial an innovative research of the device was done by Heather Mahalik and Sarah Edwards back in 2015 on the original Apple Watch. The presentation is available on Sarah Edwards’s GitHub account (PDF).

Since then, not a lot of research was done on how to extract data from this kind of devices. I have been working on this topic over the last months, by researching methods on how to extract and analyze data stored on the internal memory of the Apple Watch.

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Step by Step Guide to iOS Jailbreaking and Physical Acquisition

Thursday, May 30th, 2019

Unless you’re using GrayShift or Cellebrite services for iPhone extraction, jailbreaking is a required pre-requisite for physical acquisition. Physical access offers numerous benefits over other types of extraction; as a result, jailbreaking is in demand among experts and forensic specialists.

The procedure of installing a jailbreak for the purpose of physical extraction is vastly different from jailbreaking for research or other purposes. In particular, forensic experts are struggling to keep devices offline in order to prevent data leaks, unwanted synchronization and issues with remote device management that may remotely block or erase the device. While there is no lack of jailbreaking guides and manuals for “general” jailbreaking, installing a jailbreak for the purpose of physical acquisition has multiple forensic implications and some important precautions.

When performing forensic extraction of an iOS device, we recommend the following procedure.

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iOS 12 Rootless Jailbreak

Friday, February 22nd, 2019

The new generation of jailbreaks has arrived. Available for iOS 11 and iOS 12 (up to and including iOS 12.1.2), rootless jailbreaks offer significantly more forensically sound extraction compared to traditional jailbreaks. Learn how rootless jailbreaks are different to classic jailbreaks, why they are better for forensic extractions and what traces they leave behind.

Privilege Escalation

If you are follow our blog, you might have already seen articles on iOS jailbreaking. In case you didn’t, here are a few recent ones to get you started:

In addition, we published an article on technical and legal implications of iOS file system acquisition that’s totally worth reading.

Starting with the iPhone 5s, Apple’s first iOS device featuring a 64-bit SoC and Secure Enclave to protect device data, the term “physical acquisition” has changed its meaning. In earlier (32-bit) devices, physical acquisition used to mean creating a bit-precise image of the user’s encrypted data partition. By extracting the encryption key, the tool performing physical acquisition was able to decrypt the content of the data partition.

Secure Enclave locked us out. For 64-bit iOS devices, physical acquisition means file system imaging, a higher-level process compared to acquiring the data partition. In addition, iOS keychain can be obtained and extracted during the acquisition process.

Low-level access to the file system requires elevated privileges. Depending on which tool or service you use, privilege escalation can be performed by directly exploiting a vulnerability in iOS to bypass system’s security measures. This is what tools such as GrayKey and services such as Cellebrite do. If you go this route, you have no control over which exploit is used. You won’t know exactly which data is being altered on the device during the extraction, and what kind of traces are left behind post extraction.

In iOS Forensic Toolkit, we rely on public jailbreaks to circumvent iOS security measures. The use of public jailbreaks as opposed to closed-source exploits has its benefits and drawbacks. The obvious benefit is the lower cost of the entire solution and the fact you can choose the jailbreak to use. On the other hand, classic jailbreaks were leaving far too many traces, making them a bit overkill for the purpose of file system imaging. A classic jailbreak has to disable signature checks to allow running unsigned code. A classic jailbreak would include Cydia, a third-party app store that requires additional layers of development to work on jailbroken devices. In other words, classic jailbreaks such as Electra, Meridian or unc0ver carry too many extras that aren’t needed or wanted in the forensic world. (more…)

Technical and Legal Implications of iOS File System Acquisition

Thursday, February 21st, 2019

There has been a lot of noise regarding GrayKey news recently. GrayKey is an excellent appliance for iOS data extraction, and yes, it can help access more evidence. As always, the devil is in the detail.

A couple of quotes first, coming from the company who now partners with GrayShift to bundle their mobile forensic software (one of the best on the market, I would say) with GrayKey. They do support GrayKey-extracted data as well, and here is what they say:

“From the first iPhone extraction from GrayKey we were blown away with the amount of data they recovered”

“we’re seeing data we haven’t seen in years”

Actually, this is not exactly the case. Speaking of full file system acquisition, it’s been us who were the first on the market some 3 years ago, see Physical Acquisition for 64-bit Devices, iOS 9 Support.

Since then, we’ve been actively developing and updating iOS Forensic Toolkit, adding support for newer versions of iOS. We published a number of articles in our blog describing the benefits of file system extraction and what you can get: location data, cached mail, app-specific data, CPU and network usage data and much more.

Yes, we use the different approach, that requires jailbreaking (more on that later).

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Physical Extraction and File System Imaging of iOS 12 Devices

Thursday, February 21st, 2019

The new generation of jailbreaks has arrived for iPhones and iPads running iOS 12. Rootless jailbreaks offer experts the same low-level access to the file system as classic jailbreaks – but without their drawbacks. We’ve been closely watching the development of rootless jailbreaks, and developed full physical acquisition support (including keychain decryption) for Apple devices running iOS 12.0 through 12.1.2. Learn how to install a rootless jailbreak and how to perform physical extraction with Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit.

Jailbreaking and File System Extraction

We’ve published numerous articles on iOS jailbreaks and their connection to physical acquisition. Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit relies on public jailbreaks to gain access to the device’s file system, circumvent iOS security measures and access device secrets allowing us to decrypt the entire content of the keychain including keychain items protected with the highest protection class.

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Six Ways to Decrypt iPhone Passwords from the Keychain

Tuesday, December 18th, 2018

In Apple’s world, the keychain is one of the core and most secure components of macOS, iOS and its derivatives such as watchOS and tvOS. The keychain is intended to keep the user’s most valuable secrets securely protected. This includes protection for authentication tokens, encryption keys, credit card data and a lot more. End users are mostly familiar with one particular feature of the keychain: the ability to store all kinds of passwords. This includes passwords to Web sites (Safari and third-party Web browsers), mail accounts, social networks, instant messengers, bank accounts and just about everything else. Some records (such as Wi-Fi passwords) are “system-wide”, while other records can be only accessed by their respective apps. iOS 12 further develops password auto-fill, allowing users to utilize passwords they stored in Safari in many third-party apps.

If one can access information saved in the keychain, one can then gain the keys to everything managed by the device owner from their online accounts to banking data, online shopping, social life and much more.

Apple offers comprehensive documentation for developers on keychain services, and provides additional information in iOS Security Guide.

In this article we assembled information about all existing methods for accessing and decrypting the keychain secrets.

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Analysing Apple Pay Transactions

Thursday, August 30th, 2018

With more than 127 million users in multiple countries, Apple Pay is one of the more popular contactless payment systems. Unlike some competing payment technologies, Apple Pay is not only tightly integrated into Apple’s ecosystem but is exclusive to Apple devices.

Apple Pay serves as a digital wallet, digitizing user’s payment cards and completely replacing traditional swipe-and-sign and chip-and-PIN transactions at compatible terminals. However, unlike traditional wallets, Apple Pay also keeps detailed information about the user’s point of sale transactions. Due to the sheer amount of highly sensitive information processed by the system, Apple Pay is among the most securely protected vaults in compatible devices. In this article we’ll show you where and how this information is stored in the file system, how to extract it from the iPhone and how to analyse the data. (more…)

Accessing Lockdown Files on macOS

Thursday, July 12th, 2018

Lockdown records, or pairing records, are frequently used for accessing locked iOS devices. By using an existing lockdown record extracted from the suspect’s computer, forensic specialists can perform logical acquisition of the iOS device with iOS Forensic Toolkit and other forensic tools. Logical acquisition helps obtain information stored in system backups, access shared and media files, and even extract device crash logs. However, lockdown records may be tricky to access and difficult to extract. macOS protects lockdown files with access permissions. Let’s find out how to access the lockdown files on a live macOS system.

What Are Lockdown Records, Technically?

A down to the Earth explanation of a lockdown records is it’s simply a file stored on the user’s computer. More technically, lockdown files keep cryptographic keys that are used to allow iOS devices communicate with computers they are paired to. Such pairing records are created the first time the user connects their iOS device to a Mac or PC that has iTunes installed. Lockdown records help the iPhone talk to the computer even if the iPhone in question is locked, so that the user does not have to unlock the device every time it’s connected to the PC. This means that experts may be able to perform logical acquisition of locked iOS devices if they can obtain a valid, non-expired lockdown record. There are some “ifs and buts” though. Namely, lockdown records expire after a while. And you can only use lockdown records if the iPhone in question was unlocked (with its passcode) at least once after it was powered on or rebooted. Otherwise, the data partition remains encrypted, and you can access very little information (yet you can still get some info about the device).

macOS Protects Access to Lockdown Files

In macOS, lockdown records are stored at /private/var/db/lockdown. Starting with macOS High Sierra, Apple restricts access to this folder. If you are analyzing a live system, you’ll need to manually grant access rights to this folder. This is how.

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