Posts Tagged ‘Apple’

Passwords are probably the oldest authentication method. Despite their age, passwords remain the most popular authentication method in today’s digital age. Compared to other authentication mechanisms, they have many tangible benefits. They can be as complex or as easy to remember as needed; they can be easy to use and secure at the same time (if used properly).

The number of passwords an average person has to remember is growing exponentially. Back in 2017, an average home user had to cope with nearly 20 passwords (presumably they would be unique passwords). An average business employee had to cope with 191 passwords. Passwords are everywhere. Even your phone has more than one password. Speaking of Apple iPhone, the thing may require as many as four (and a half) passwords to get you going. To make things even more complicated, the four and a half passwords are seriously related to each other. Let’s list them:

  • Screen lock password (this is your iPhone passcode)
  • iCloud password (this is your Apple Account password)
  • iTunes backup password (protects backups made on your computer)
  • Screen Time password (secures your device and account, can protect changes to above passwords)
  • One-time codes (the “half-password” if your account uses Two-Factor Authentication)

In this article, we will provide an overview on how these passwords are used and how they are related to each other; what are the default settings and how they affect your privacy and security. We’ll tell you how to use one password to reset another. We will also cover the password policies and describe what happens if you attempt to brute force the forgotten password.

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In iOS forensics, cloud extraction is a viable alternative when physical acquisition is not possible. The upcoming release of iOS 13 brings additional security measures that will undoubtedly make physical access even more difficult. While the ability to download iCloud backups has been around for years, the need to supply the user’s login and password followed by two-factor authentication was always a roadblock.

Some five years ago, we learned how to use authentication tokens to access iCloud backups without a password. In Breaking Into iCloud: No Password Required we discussed the benefits of this approach. During the next years, we learned how to use authentication tokens to access other types of data stored in iCloud including the user’s photo library, browsing history, contacts, calendars and other information that Apple synchronizes across all of the user’s devices that are signed in to the same Apple account.

Many things have changed since then. Tokens can no longer be used to access iCloud backups, period. Tokens cannot be used to access passwords (iCloud Keychain), Screen Time, Health and Messages. Sometime last year Apple pinned authentication tokens to a particular computer, making them usable just from the very PC or Mac they’ve been created on. It took us more than a year to figure out a workaround allowing experts to transfer authentication tokens from the user’s computer. Even today, this workaround is only working if the user had a macOS computer. With this number of restrictions, are authentication tokens still usable? What can you obtain from the user’s iCloud account with an authentication token, and what can be accessed with a login and password? How two-factor authentication affects what’s available in an iCloud account, and why knowing the screen lock passcode (or Mac system password) can help? Keep reading to find out.

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In Apple’s land, losing your Apple Account password is not a big deal. If you’d lost your password, there could be a number of options to reinstate access to your account. If your account is not using Two-Factor Authentication, you could answer security questions to quickly reset your password, or use iForgot to reinstate access to your account. If you switched on Two-Factor Authentication to protect your Apple Account, you (or anyone else who knows your device passcode and has physical access to one of your Apple devices) can easily change the password; literally in a matter of seconds.

But what if you do know your password and your passcode but lost access to the only physical iOS device using your Apple ID and your SIM card at the same time? This could easily happen if you travel abroad and your phone is stolen together with the SIM card. There could be an even worse situation if your trusted phone number is no longer available (if, for example, you switched carrier or used a prepaid line and that line has expired).

It’s particularly interesting if you have a child under the age of 13 registered in your Family Sharing, and the child loses their only iOS device (at that age, they are likely to have just one) and their phone number (at that age, they are likely to use prepaid service). So let us explore what happens to your Apple Account if you lose access to your secondary authentication factor, and compare the process of regaining control over your account in Apple and Google ecosystems. (more…)

Since April 2018, Apple made iTunes available to Windows 10 users through the Microsoft Store. While the stand-alone download remains available from Apple’s Web site, it is no longer offered by default to Windows 10 users. Instead, visitors are directed to Microsoft Store, which will handle the installation and updates of the iTunes app.

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In Apple’s world, the keychain is one of the core and most secure components of macOS, iOS and its derivatives such as watchOS and tvOS. The keychain is intended to keep the user’s most valuable secrets securely protected. This includes protection for authentication tokens, encryption keys, credit card data and a lot more. End users are mostly familiar with one particular feature of the keychain: the ability to store all kinds of passwords. This includes passwords to Web sites (Safari and third-party Web browsers), mail accounts, social networks, instant messengers, bank accounts and just about everything else. Some records (such as Wi-Fi passwords) are “system-wide”, while other records can be only accessed by their respective apps. iOS 12 further develops password auto-fill, allowing users to utilize passwords they stored in Safari in many third-party apps.

If one can access information saved in the keychain, one can then gain the keys to everything managed by the device owner from their online accounts to banking data, online shopping, social life and much more.

Apple offers comprehensive documentation for developers on keychain services, and provides additional information in iOS Security Guide.

In this article we assembled information about all existing methods for accessing and decrypting the keychain secrets.

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The release of iOS 11.4.1 back in July 2018 introduced USB Restricted Mode, a feature designed to defer passcode cracking tools such as those developed by Cellerbrite and Grayshift. As a reminder, iOS 11.4.1 automatically switches off data connectivity of the Lightning port after one hour since the device was last unlocked, or one hour since the device has been disconnected from a USB accessory or computer. In addition, users could manually disable the USB port by following the S.O.S. mode routine.

iOS 12 takes USB restrictions one step further. According to the new iOS Security guide published by Apple after the release of iOS 12, USB connections are disabled immediately after the device locks if more than three days have passed since the last USB connection, or if the device is in a state when it requires a passcode.

“In addition, on iOS 12 if it’s been more than three days since a USB connection has been established, the device will disallow new USB connections immediately after it locks. This is to increase protection for users that don’t often make use of such connections. USB connections are also disabled whenever the device is in a state where it requires a passcode to re-enable biometric authentication.”

Source: Apple iOS Security, September 2018 (more…)

On February 28, 2018, Apple has officially moved its Chinese iCloud operations and encryption keys to China. The reaction to this move from the media was overwhelmingly negative. The Verge, The Guardian, Reuters, Wired, and CNN among other Western media outlets expressed their concerns about the Chinese government potentially violating the human rights of its citizens. Politics aside, we will review Apple policies governing the Chinese accounts, and look into the technical implementation of Chinese iCloud operations. Let us see if the fears are substantiated.

The Fear of China

Even if the change only affects iCloud accounts registered in mainland China, there is no lack of publications bashing apple for complying with Chinese laws. Below are just a few stories from the top of the news feed.

Journalists express their concerns regarding the potential violation of Chinese users human rights. “In the past, if Chinese authorities wanted to access [Chinese] Apple’s user data, they had to go through an international legal process and comply with U.S. laws on user rights, according to Ronald Deibert, director of the University of Toronto’s Citizen Lab, which studies the intersection of digital policy and human rights. “They will no longer have to do so if iCloud and cryptographic keys are located in China’s jurisdiction,” he told CNNMoney.” [CNN]

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Apple’s latest and greatest iPhone, the iPhone X, received mixed reviews and sells slower than expected. While the high price of the new iPhone is a major factor influencing the slow sales, some of the negative points come from the device usability. The combination of design language, hardware and software interactions make using the new iPhone less than intuitive in many situations. In this article, we collected the list of utterly strange design decisions affecting the daily use of the iPhone X.

The Return of Slide to Unlock

In iOS 10, Apple has finally rid of the infamous “slide to unlock” prompt, replacing it with the prompt to that asks iPhone users (as well as users of Touch ID equipped iPads) to press the home button to gain access to the home screen. This means that, by default, users could no longer simply rest their finger on the home button to unlock their device with their fingerprint.

A workaround was discovered quickly. Apparently, it was possible to alter the “Rest Finger to Open” option in General > Accessibility > Home Button to make iPhones capable of “raise-to-wake” unlock without pressing down on the home button.

This option is still present in iOS 11, and still works on all devices equipped with Touch ID – but not Face ID. The iPhone X is the only device in Apple’s stable that cannot be automatically unlocked when picked up. Users must still reach for the very bottom of the device’s screen and… yes: swipe up to unlock. This feels like a huge step back to pre-iOS 10 days, and annoys many users.

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Apple has a wonderfully integrated ecosystem. Apple computers, tablets and phones conveniently synchronize information such as passwords, Web browsing history, contacts and call logs across all of the user’s devices. This synchronization mechanism uses iCloud to sync and store information. The syncing mechanism works independently from iOS system backups that are also stored in iCloud (or iCloud Drive). As opposed to daily iCloud backups, synchronized data is updated and propagated across devices in almost real time. Extracting this information can be invaluable for investigations as it provides access to the most up to date information about the user, their activities and whereabouts.

What exactly is synced through iCloud? The screen shot above lists all options available in iOS 11. As you can see, the following types of data are (or can be) synced across Apple devices:

  • Photos (iCloud Photo Library)
  • Mail (iCloud mail only)
  • Contacts, Calendars and Reminders
  • Safari (browsing history, bookmarks and tabs open on other devices)
  • Game Center (profiles, achievements and game progress)
  • Siri (requests, settings)
  • Keychain (iCloud Keychain stores passwords and forms from Safari, iOS system, Apple and some third-party apps, but not Google Chrome)
  • iCloud backups (up to last 3 copies per device, created daily while charging)
  • iBooks, Pages, Numbers and Keynote (e-books, PDF files, documents)
  • Maps (user’s search history, routes and places)
  • Wallet
  • Wi-Fi

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iOS 11 introduced multiple changes to its security model. Some of these changes are highly welcome, while we aren’t exactly fond of some others. In this quick reference guide, we tried to summarize all the changes introduced by iOS 11 in the security department.

Compared to iOS 10 and earlier versions of the system, iOS 11 introduced the following security changes:

–  Reset password to local backups (passcode required), which makes logical acquisition trivial

–  For 2FA accounts, reset Apple ID password and change trusted phone number with just device passcode (possible for both iOS 11 and iOS 10)

–  Health data sync with iCloud (users can disable)

+  Passcode required to establish trust relationship with a PC (Touch ID/Face ID can no longer be used to pair)

+  Quickly and discretely disable Touch ID/Face ID via S.O.S. mode

+  Automatically call emergency number (push side button 5 times in rapid succession)

+  iOS 11 strongly suggests enabling Two-Factor Authentication in multiple places

+  Two-Step Verification (2SV) is no longer available

Additionally, in macOS High Sierra, Desktop and Documents folders now sync with iCloud (user can disable).