Posts Tagged ‘jailbreak’

Are you excited about the new checkm8 exploit? If you haven’t heard of this major development in the world of iOS jailbreaks, I would recommend to read the Technical analysis of the checkm8 exploit aricle, as well as Developer of Checkm8 explains why iDevice jailbreak exploit is a game changer. The good news is that a jailbreak based on this exploit is already available, look at the checkra1n web site.

The jailbreak based on checkm8 supports iPhone devices based on Apple’s 64-bit platform ranging from the iPhone 5s all the way up to the iPhone 8 and iPhone X. Unlike previous jailbreaks, this one supports most iOS versions, up to and including iOS 13.2.2 at the time of  this writing. Support for future versions of iOS is also possible due to the nature of this exploit. Most iPads are also supported. Currently, there is no support for the Apple Watch, though theoretically it is possible for Series 1, 2 and 3. The Apple TV series 4 and 4K are supported by the exploit, and a jailbreak for series 4 is already available.

What does that mean for the forensic crowd? Most importantly, the jailbreak can be installed even on locked devices, as it works through DFU mode. That does not mean that you will be able to break the passcode. While you can extract some data from a locked device / unknown passcode, it won’t be much. From the other side, the jailbreak allows to dump the complete image of the file system if the passcode is known. This works for all devices from the iPhone 5s to X, many iPads, and Apple TV 4.

In this article, we will briefly describe how to install the jailbreak on Apple TV and what you can expect out of it.

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When you perform Apple iCloud acquisition, it almost does not matter what platform to use, Windows or macOS (I say almost, because some differences still apply, as macOS has better/native iCloud support). Logical acquisition can be done on any platform as well. But when doing full file system acquisition of jailbroken devices using Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit, we strongly recommend using macOS. If you are strongly tied to Windows, however, there are some things you should know.

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The iOS 12.4 jailbreak is out, and so is Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit. Using the two together, one can image the file system and decrypt the keychain of iPhone and iPad devices running most versions of iOS (except iOS 12.3 and and the latest 12.4.1, but 12.4 is still signed right now).

There is more to this jailbreak situation than meets the eye. There is not one but two different jailbreaks: unc0ver and Chimera. Both jailbreak tools come in several versions; the differences between their versions are severe. There is also a tool that can access the file system (but not the keychain) on some iOS devices without a jailbreak. Finally, we’ve been able to jailbreak the Apple TV running affected versions of tvOS.

In this article I’ll explain the differences between the two jailbreaks and their versions, provide information about the tool one can use to access the file system without jailbreaking, and provide instructions on how to safely jailbreak in offline mode.

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This post continues the series of articles about Apple companion devices. If you haven’t seen them, you may want to read Apple TV and Apple Watch Forensics 01: Acquisition first. If you are into Apple Watch forensics, have a look at Apple Watch Forensics 02: Analysis as well. Today we’ll have a look at what’s inside of the Apple TV.

A recent market analysis shows that Apple has sold more than 13 million Apple TV devices worldwide since 2016. Since 2007, Apple manufactured 6 different Apple TV models. Like any other Apple device, the model can be easily identified by checking the label on the bottom of the device.

 

The first-generation Apple TV (model A1218) contains a regular hard drive that can be extracted and imaged with a traditional approach. The operating system is a modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger). A detailed explanation on how to approach this kind of devices was introduced at DEFCON 2009 by Kevin Estis and Randy Robbins (the presentation is available here while the video is available here).

The Apple TV from second (model A1378) to fourth (A1625) generations have an internal NAND storage varying from 8 GB (A1378 – A1427 – A1469) to 32 or 64 GB (A1625). These models also feature a USB port connection (micro USB or USB-C). The availability of a USB port allows connecting the device to a PC/Mac. Forensic experts can use the port for data extraction. Apple removed USB connectivity in the latest, fifth generation Apple TV (Apple TV 4K, model A1842), making it more difficult to connect and extract data.

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By this time, seemingly everyone has published an article or two about Apple re-introducing the vulnerability that was patched in the previous version of iOS. The vulnerability was made into a known exploit, which in turn was used to jailbreak iOS 12.2 (and most previous versions). We’ll look at it from the point of view of a forensic expert.

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What can and what cannot be done with an iOS device using Touch ID/Face ID authentication as opposed to knowing the passcode? The differences are huge. For the sake of simplicity, we’ll only cover iOS 12 and 13. If you just want a quick summary, scroll down to the end of the article for a table.

BFU and AFU

Let’s get it out of the way: everything that’s listed below applies exclusively to AFU (After First Unlock) devices. You cannot use biometrics to unlock an iOS device that’s been restarted or powered on; such devices are in the state known as BFU (Before First Unlock).

BFU, Before First Unlock: The iOS device was restarted or powered off; you powered it on but cannot unlock it because it’s protected with an unknown passcode.

AFU, After First Unlock: The iOS device was unlocked (with a passcode) at least once after it’s been last rebooted or powered on.

Screen Lock: Unlocking the Device

Touch ID or Face ID can be only used to unlock AFU devices. In order to unlock a BFU device, you’ll have to use the passcode. Even if you manage to bypass the lock screen (via an exploit), you won’t be able to access most device data as it will be encrypted. The decryption key is generated when the user first unlocks the device; the key is based on the passcode.

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If you are familiar with breaking passwords, you already know that different tools and file formats require a very different amount of efforts to break. Breaking a password protecting a RAR archive can take ten times as long as breaking a password to a ZIP archive with the same content, while breaking a Word document saved in Office 2016 can take ten times as long as breaking an Office 2010 document. With solutions for over 300 file formats and encryption algorithms, we still find iTunes backups amazing, and their passwords to be very different from the rest of the crop in some interesting ways. In this article we tried to gather everything we know about iTunes backup passwords to help you break (or reset) their passwords in the most efficient way.

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Jailbreaking is used by the forensic community to access the file system of iOS devices, perform physical extraction and decrypt device secrets. Jailbreaking the device is one of the most straightforward ways to gain low-level access to many types of evidence not available with any other extraction methods.

On the negative side, jailbreaking is a process that carries risks and other implications. Depending on various factors such as the jailbreak tool, installation method and the ability to understand and follow the procedure will affect the risks and consequences of installing a jailbreak. In this article we’ll talk about the risks and consequences of using various jailbreak tools and installation methods.

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Unless you’re using GrayShift or Cellebrite services for iPhone extraction, jailbreaking is a required pre-requisite for physical acquisition. Physical access offers numerous benefits over other types of extraction; as a result, jailbreaking is in demand among experts and forensic specialists.

The procedure of installing a jailbreak for the purpose of physical extraction is vastly different from jailbreaking for research or other purposes. In particular, forensic experts are struggling to keep devices offline in order to prevent data leaks, unwanted synchronization and issues with remote device management that may remotely block or erase the device. While there is no lack of jailbreaking guides and manuals for “general” jailbreaking, installing a jailbreak for the purpose of physical acquisition has multiple forensic implications and some important precautions.

When performing forensic extraction of an iOS device, we recommend the following procedure.

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iOS 12 Rootless Jailbreak

February 22nd, 2019 by Oleg Afonin

The new generation of jailbreaks has arrived. Available for iOS 11 and iOS 12 (up to and including iOS 12.1.2), rootless jailbreaks offer significantly more forensically sound extraction compared to traditional jailbreaks. Learn how rootless jailbreaks are different to classic jailbreaks, why they are better for forensic extractions and what traces they leave behind.

Privilege Escalation

If you are follow our blog, you might have already seen articles on iOS jailbreaking. In case you didn’t, here are a few recent ones to get you started:

In addition, we published an article on technical and legal implications of iOS file system acquisition that’s totally worth reading.

Starting with the iPhone 5s, Apple’s first iOS device featuring a 64-bit SoC and Secure Enclave to protect device data, the term “physical acquisition” has changed its meaning. In earlier (32-bit) devices, physical acquisition used to mean creating a bit-precise image of the user’s encrypted data partition. By extracting the encryption key, the tool performing physical acquisition was able to decrypt the content of the data partition.

Secure Enclave locked us out. For 64-bit iOS devices, physical acquisition means file system imaging, a higher-level process compared to acquiring the data partition. In addition, iOS keychain can be obtained and extracted during the acquisition process.

Low-level access to the file system requires elevated privileges. Depending on which tool or service you use, privilege escalation can be performed by directly exploiting a vulnerability in iOS to bypass system’s security measures. This is what tools such as GrayKey and services such as Cellebrite do. If you go this route, you have no control over which exploit is used. You won’t know exactly which data is being altered on the device during the extraction, and what kind of traces are left behind post extraction.

In iOS Forensic Toolkit, we rely on public jailbreaks to circumvent iOS security measures. The use of public jailbreaks as opposed to closed-source exploits has its benefits and drawbacks. The obvious benefit is the lower cost of the entire solution and the fact you can choose the jailbreak to use. On the other hand, classic jailbreaks were leaving far too many traces, making them a bit overkill for the purpose of file system imaging. A classic jailbreak has to disable signature checks to allow running unsigned code. A classic jailbreak would include Cydia, a third-party app store that requires additional layers of development to work on jailbroken devices. In other words, classic jailbreaks such as Electra, Meridian or unc0ver carry too many extras that aren’t needed or wanted in the forensic world. (more…)