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Posts Tagged ‘jailbreak’

iOS 12 Rootless Jailbreak

Friday, February 22nd, 2019

The new generation of jailbreaks has arrived. Available for iOS 11 and iOS 12 (up to and including iOS 12.1.2), rootless jailbreaks offer significantly more forensically sound extraction compared to traditional jailbreaks. Learn how rootless jailbreaks are different to classic jailbreaks, why they are better for forensic extractions and what traces they leave behind.

Privilege Escalation

If you are follow our blog, you might have already seen articles on iOS jailbreaking. In case you didn’t, here are a few recent ones to get you started:

In addition, we published an article on technical and legal implications of iOS file system acquisition that’s totally worth reading.

Starting with the iPhone 5s, Apple’s first iOS device featuring a 64-bit SoC and Secure Enclave to protect device data, the term “physical acquisition” has changed its meaning. In earlier (32-bit) devices, physical acquisition used to mean creating a bit-precise image of the user’s encrypted data partition. By extracting the encryption key, the tool performing physical acquisition was able to decrypt the content of the data partition.

Secure Enclave locked us out. For 64-bit iOS devices, physical acquisition means file system imaging, a higher-level process compared to acquiring the data partition. In addition, iOS keychain can be obtained and extracted during the acquisition process.

Low-level access to the file system requires elevated privileges. Depending on which tool or service you use, privilege escalation can be performed by directly exploiting a vulnerability in iOS to bypass system’s security measures. This is what tools such as GrayKey and services such as Cellebrite do. If you go this route, you have no control over which exploit is used. You won’t know exactly which data is being altered on the device during the extraction, and what kind of traces are left behind post extraction.

In iOS Forensic Toolkit, we rely on public jailbreaks to circumvent iOS security measures. The use of public jailbreaks as opposed to closed-source exploits has its benefits and drawbacks. The obvious benefit is the lower cost of the entire solution and the fact you can choose the jailbreak to use. On the other hand, classic jailbreaks were leaving far too many traces, making them a bit overkill for the purpose of file system imaging. A classic jailbreak has to disable signature checks to allow running unsigned code. A classic jailbreak would include Cydia, a third-party app store that requires additional layers of development to work on jailbroken devices. In other words, classic jailbreaks such as Electra, Meridian or unc0ver carry too many extras that aren’t needed or wanted in the forensic world. (more…)

Physical Extraction and File System Imaging of iOS 12 Devices

Thursday, February 21st, 2019

The new generation of jailbreaks has arrived for iPhones and iPads running iOS 12. Rootless jailbreaks offer experts the same low-level access to the file system as classic jailbreaks – but without their drawbacks. We’ve been closely watching the development of rootless jailbreaks, and developed full physical acquisition support (including keychain decryption) for Apple devices running iOS 12.0 through 12.1.2. Learn how to install a rootless jailbreak and how to perform physical extraction with Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit.

Jailbreaking and File System Extraction

We’ve published numerous articles on iOS jailbreaks and their connection to physical acquisition. Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit relies on public jailbreaks to gain access to the device’s file system, circumvent iOS security measures and access device secrets allowing us to decrypt the entire content of the keychain including keychain items protected with the highest protection class.

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iPhone Physical Acquisition: iOS 11.4 and 11.4.1

Tuesday, February 5th, 2019

The two recent jailbreaks, unc0ver and Electra, have finally enabled file system extraction for Apple devices running iOS 11.4 and 11.4.1. At this time, all versions of iOS 11 can be jailbroken regardless of hardware. Let’s talk about forensic consequences of today’s release: keychain and file system extraction.

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Six Ways to Decrypt iPhone Passwords from the Keychain

Tuesday, December 18th, 2018

In Apple’s world, the keychain is one of the core and most secure components of macOS, iOS and its derivatives such as watchOS and tvOS. The keychain is intended to keep the user’s most valuable secrets securely protected. This includes protection for authentication tokens, encryption keys, credit card data and a lot more. End users are mostly familiar with one particular feature of the keychain: the ability to store all kinds of passwords. This includes passwords to Web sites (Safari and third-party Web browsers), mail accounts, social networks, instant messengers, bank accounts and just about everything else. Some records (such as Wi-Fi passwords) are “system-wide”, while other records can be only accessed by their respective apps. iOS 12 further develops password auto-fill, allowing users to utilize passwords they stored in Safari in many third-party apps.

If one can access information saved in the keychain, one can then gain the keys to everything managed by the device owner from their online accounts to banking data, online shopping, social life and much more.

Apple offers comprehensive documentation for developers on keychain services, and provides additional information in iOS Security Guide.

In this article we assembled information about all existing methods for accessing and decrypting the keychain secrets.

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Using iOS 11.2-11.3.1 Electra Jailbreak for iPhone Physical Acquisition

Tuesday, July 10th, 2018

It’s been fast. iOS 11.3.1 and all earlier versions of the system down to iOS 11.2 have been successfully jailbroken. In addition, the jailbreak is compatible with iOS 11.4 beta 1 through 3. We normally wouldn’t post about each new jailbreak release; however, this time things are slightly different. The new Electra jailbreak uses two different exploits and presents two very different installation routines depending on whether or not you have a developer account with Apple. Considering how much more stable the developer-account exploit is compared to the routine available to the general public, this time it pays to be an Apple developer.

We tested the Electra jailbreak and can confirm that iOS Forensic Toolkit 4.0 is fully compatible. File system imaging and keychain extraction work; no OpenSSH installation required as Electra includes an SSH client listening on port 22.

Why Jailbreak?

For the general consumer, jailbreak is one open security vulnerability calling for trouble. Apple warns users against jailbreaking their devices, and there is much truth in their words.

Forensic experts use jailbreaks for much different reasons compared to enthusiast users. A wide-open security vulnerability is exactly what they want to expose the device’s file system, circumvent iOS sandbox protection and access protected data. Jailbreaking extract the largest set of data from the device. During jailbreaking, many software restrictions imposed by iOS are removed through the use of software exploits.

In addition to sandboxed app data (which includes conversation histories and downloaded mail), experts can also extract and decrypt the keychain, a system-wide storage for online passwords, authentication tokens and encryption keys. Unlike keychain items obtained from a password-protected local backup, physical extraction of a jailbroken device gains access to keychain items secured with the highest protection class ThisDeviceOnly (this is how).

The New Electra Jailbreak

Jailbreaking iOS versions past 11.1.2 (for which a Google-discovered vulnerability was published along with a proof-of-concept tool) was particularly challenging but not impossible. At this time, a team of jailbreakers discovered not one but two different vulnerabilities, releasing two versions of Electra jailbreak. Why the two versions?

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Apple Warns Users against Jailbreaking iOS Devices: True or False?

Monday, July 2nd, 2018

Apple has an article on their official Web site, warning users against jailbreaking iOS devices. The article “Unauthorized modification of iOS can cause security vulnerabilities, instability, shortened battery life, and other issues” is available at https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201954. How much truth is in that article, and is jailbreaking as dangerous as Apple claims? We’ll comment the article based on our extensive experience in jailbreaking more than a hundred devices running every version of iOS imaginable.

Security Vulnerabilities

Apple introduces the concept of jailbreaking by stating the following: “iOS is designed to be reliable and secure from the moment you turn on your device. Built-in security features protect against malware and viruses and help to secure access to personal information and corporate data. Unauthorized modifications to iOS (also known as “jailbreaking”) bypass security features and can cause numerous issues to the hacked iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch” (HT201954). According to Apple, jailbreaking introduces security vulnerabilities by “…eliminating security layers designed to protect your personal information and your iOS device.

True. Jailbreaking is a process that is specifically designed to circumvent security layers designed to protect information on iOS devices. In fact, this is exactly why we need a jailbreak for tools such as Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit to operate. Without a jailbreak, we would not be able to access the file system, extract sandboxed app data or decrypt the keychain (including items secured with the highest protection class). Installing a jailbreak, on the other hand, allows us doing all of that – and more. (more…)

Breaking into iOS 11

Tuesday, February 20th, 2018

In the world of mobile forensics, physical acquisition is still the way to go. Providing significantly more information compared to logical extraction, physical acquisition can return sandboxed app data (even for apps that disabled backups), downloaded mail, Web browser cache, chat histories, comprehensive location history, system logs and much more.

In order to extract all of that from an i-device, you’ll need the extraction tool (iOS Forensic Toolkit) and a working jailbreak. With Apple constantly tightening security of its mobile ecosystem, jailbreaking becomes increasingly more difficult. Without a bug hunter at Google’s Project Zero, who released the “tfp0” proof-of-concept iOS exploit, making a working iOS 11 jailbreak would take the community much longer, or would not be possible.

The vulnerability exploited in tfp0 was present in all versions of iOS 10 on all 32-bit and 64-bit devices. It was also present in early versions of iOS 11. The last vulnerable version was iOS 11.2.1. Based on the tfp0 exploit, various teams have released their own versions of jailbreaks.

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What can be extracted from locked iPhones with new iOS Forensic Toolkit

Thursday, November 9th, 2017

Tired of reading on lockdown/pairing records? Sorry, we can’t stop. Pairing records are the key to access the content of a locked iPhone. We have recently made a number of findings allowing us to extract even more information from locked devices through the use of lockdown records. It’s not a breakthrough discovery and will never make front page news, but having more possibilities is always great.

Physical acquisition rules if it can be done. Physical works like a charm for ancient devices (up to and including the iPhone 4). For old models such as the iPhone 4s, 5 and 5c, full physical acquisition can still be performed, but  only if the device is already unlocked and a jailbreak can be installed. All reasonably recent models (starting with the iPhone 5s and all the way up to the iPhone 7 – but no 8, 8 Plus or the X) can be acquired as well, but for those devices all you’re getting is a copy of the file system with no partition imaging and no keychain. At this time, no company in the world can perform the full physical acquisition (which would include decrypting the disk image and the keychain) for iPhone 5s and newer.

The only way to unlock the iPhone (5s and newer) is hardware-driven. For iOS 7 and earlier, as well as for some early 8.x releases, the process was relatively easy. With iOS 9 through 11, however, it is a headache. There is still a possibility to enter the device into the special mode when the number of passcode attempts is not limited and one can brute-force the passcode, albeit at a very low rate of up to several minutes per passcode.

The worst about this method is its very low reliability. You can use a cheap Chinese device for trying passcodes at your own risk, or pay a lot of money to somebody else who will do about the same for you. Those guys do have more experience, and the risk is lower, but there still is no warranty of any kind, and you won’t get your money back if they fail.

There are other possibilities as well. We strongly recommend you to try the alternative method described below before taking the risk of “bricking” the device or paying big money for nothing.

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The art of iOS and iCloud forensics

Thursday, November 2nd, 2017
  • The rise and fall of physical acquisition
  • Jailbreak to the rescue
  • In the shade of iCloud
  • iCloud Keychain acquisition hits the scene

iOS 11 has arrived, now running on every second Apple device. There could not be a better time to reminiscent how iOS forensics has started just a few short years ago. Let’s have a look at what was possible back then, what is possible now, and what can be expected of iOS forensics in the future.

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iOS 9.3.5 Physical Acquisition Made Possible with Phoenix Jailbreak

Thursday, August 24th, 2017

If you watch industry news, you are probably aware of the new Phoenix jailbreak… or not. During the last several years, getting news about iOS jailbreaks from reliable sources became increasingly difficult. The sheer number of fake Web sites mimicking the look of well-known resources such as Pangu and TaiG made us extra careful when trying newly published exploits.

Back to Phoenix. This thing is for real. Phoenix claims support for iPhone 4s, 5/5c, iPad 2/3/4, iPad mini, and iPod 5g running the last version of iOS 9.3.5. We were able to verify these claims by successfully jailbreaking several test devices and using Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit to perform full physical acquisition (as in imaging and decrypting the physical data partition).

With Phoenix jailbreak, iOS Forensic Toolkit can perform physical acquisition of Apple’s 32-bit devices running iOS 9.3.5, which happens to be the last version of iOS 9. Users of iOS Forensic Toolkit can perform physical-level imaging and decryption of the data partition, decryption and examination of keychain items, and enjoy full unrestricted access to sandboxed app data. This level of access is simply not possible with any other acquisition methods. As an example, physical acquisition of jailbroken devices enables forensic access to saved email messages, passwords, and full conversation logs saved by some of the most secure messengers such as WhatsApp, Telegram, Signal, Skype and Facebook Messenger. Compared to iOS backup analysis, this method adds access to browser cache and temporary files, email messages, extended location history, and data that belongs to apps that explicitly disable backups.

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