Archive for October, 2019

Passwords are probably the oldest authentication method. Despite their age, passwords remain the most popular authentication method in today’s digital age. Compared to other authentication mechanisms, they have many tangible benefits. They can be as complex or as easy to remember as needed; they can be easy to use and secure at the same time (if used properly).

The number of passwords an average person has to remember is growing exponentially. Back in 2017, an average home user had to cope with nearly 20 passwords (presumably they would be unique passwords). An average business employee had to cope with 191 passwords. Passwords are everywhere. Even your phone has more than one password. Speaking of Apple iPhone, the thing may require as many as four (and a half) passwords to get you going. To make things even more complicated, the four and a half passwords are seriously related to each other. Let’s list them:

  • Screen lock password (this is your iPhone passcode)
  • iCloud password (this is your Apple Account password)
  • iTunes backup password (protects backups made on your computer)
  • Screen Time password (secures your device and account, can protect changes to above passwords)
  • One-time codes (the “half-password” if your account uses Two-Factor Authentication)

In this article, we will provide an overview on how these passwords are used and how they are related to each other; what are the default settings and how they affect your privacy and security. We’ll tell you how to use one password to reset another. We will also cover the password policies and describe what happens if you attempt to brute force the forgotten password.

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The release of macOS Catalina brought the usual bunch of security updates. One of those new security features directly affects how you install Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit on Macs running the new OS. In this guide we’ll provide step by step instructions on installing and running iOS Forensic Toolkit on computers running macOS 10.15 Catalina. Note: on macOS Catalina, you must use iOS Forensic Toolkit 5.11 or newer (older versions may also work but not recommended).

The Issue

In macOS 10.15, Apple made running third-party apps slightly more difficult. The new security measure is designed to prevent users from accidentally running apps downloaded from the Internet by quarantining files obtained from sources that aren’t explicitly whitelisted by Apple.

As Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit is not distributed through Apple App Store, our tool falls under this restriction and will be quarantined once you install it.

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The Screen Time passcode is an optional feature of iOS 12 and 13 that can be used to secure the Content & Privacy Restrictions. Once the password is set, iOS will prompt for the Screen Time passcode if an expert attempts to reset the device backup password (iTunes backup password) in addition to the screen lock passcode. As a result, experts will require two passcodes in order to reset the backup password: the device screen lock passcode and the Screen Time passcode. Since the 4-digit Screen Time passcode is separate to the device lock passcode (the one that is used when locking and unlocking the device), it becomes an extra security layer effectively blocking logical acquisition attempts.

Since users don’t have to enter Screen Time passcodes as often as they are required to enter their screen lock passcode, it is easy to genuinely forget that password. Apple does not offer an official routine for resetting or recovering Screen Time passcodes other than resetting the device to factory settings and setting it up as a new device (as opposed to restoring it from the backup). For this reason, the official route is inacceptable during the course of device acquisition.

Unofficially, users can recover their Screen Time passcode by making a fresh local backup of the device and inspecting its content with a third-party tool. In iOS 12, the Screen Time passcode can be only recovered from password-protected backups; in iOS 13, the passcode cannot be obtained even from the local backup. If local backups are protected with a password not known to the expert, the situation becomes a deadlock: one cannot reset an unknown backup password without a Screen Time passcode, and one cannot access the Screen Time passcode without decrypting the backup.

Elcomsoft Phone Breaker 9.20 offers an effective solution to the deadlock by obtaining Screen Time passcodes from the user’s iCloud account. The tool supports all versions of iOS 12 and 13.

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