Posts Tagged ‘Apple iCloud’

For us, this year has been extremely replete with all sorts of developments in desktop, mobile and cloud forensics. We are proud with our achievements and want to share with you. Let’s have a quick look at what we’ve achieved in the year 2019.

Mobile Forensics: iOS File System Imaging

We started this year by updating Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit, and by a twist of a fate it became our most developed tool in 2019. The developments went through a number of iterations. The release of unc0ver and Electra jailbreaks enabled Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit to support physical acquisition for iOS 11.4 and 11.4.1 devices, allowing it to produce file system extraction via jailbreak.

In the meanwhile, we updated Elcomsoft Phone Viewer with support for file system images produced by GrayKey, a popular forensic solution for iOS physical extraction. Analysing GrayKey output with Elcomsoft Phone Viewer became faster and more convenient.

Later in February, Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit received a major update, adding support for physical acquisition of Apple devices running iOS 12. The tool became capable of extracting the content of the file system and decrypting passwords and authentication credentials stored in the iOS keychain. For the first time, iOS Forensic Toolkit made use of a rootless jailbreak with significantly smaller footprint compared to traditional jailbreaks.

Not long ago, Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit 5.20 was updated with file system extraction support for select Apple devices running all versions of iOS from iOS 12 to iOS 13.3. Making use of the new future-proof bootrom exploit built into the checkra1n jailbreak, EIFT is able to extract the full file system image, decrypt passwords and authentication credentials stored in the iOS keychain. And finally, the sensational version 5.21 raised a storm of headlines talking about iOS Forensic Toolkit as the ‘New Apple iOS 13.3 Security Threat’. Why? We made the tool support the extraction of iOS keychain from locked and disabled devices in the BPU-mode (Before-first-unlock). The extraction is available on Apple devices built with A7 through A11 generation SoC via the checkra1n jailbreak.

Mobile Forensics: Logical Acquisition

Later on, Elcomsoft Phone Viewer was further updated to recover and display Restrictions and Screen Time passwords when analysing iOS local backups. In addition, version 4.60 became capable of decrypting and displaying conversation histories in Signal, one of the world’s most secure messaging apps. Experts became able to decrypt and analyse Signal communication histories when analysing the results of iOS file system acquisition.

Desktop Forensics and Trainings

In 2019 we’ve also updated Advanced PDF Password Recovery with a new Device Manager, and added support for NVIDIA CUDA 10 and OpenCL graphic cards to Advanced Office Password Recovery. Advanced Intuit Password Recovery added support for Quicken and QuickBooks 2018-2019 covering the changes in data formats and encryption of newest Intuit applications. In addition, the tool enabled GPU acceleration on the latest generation of NVIDIA boards via CUDA 10.

We are proud to say that the many changes we implemented in Elcomsoft Distributed Password Recovery are based on the users’ feedback we received by email and in person, during and after the training sessions. We had several trainings this year in the UK, Northern Ireland and Canada. “Fantastic. Time well spent on the training and on software that will be very useful on cases in the future”, commented Computer Forensic Examiner.

Cloud Forensics

We learned how to extract and decrypt Apple Health data from the cloud – something that Apple won’t provide to the law enforcement when serving legal requests. Health data can serve as essential evidence during investigations. The updated Elcomsoft Phone Viewer can show Apple Health data extracted with Elcomsoft Phone Breaker or available in iOS local backups and file system images.

Very soon Elcomsoft Phone Breaker 9.20 expanded the list of supported data categories, adding iOS Screen Time and Voice Memos. Screen Time passwords and some additional information can be extracted from iCloud along with other synchronized data, while Voice Memos can be extracted from local and cloud backups and iCloud synchronized data.

Skype anyone? In December, Elcomsoft Phone Viewer and Elcomsoft Phone Breaker were updated to extract and display Skype conversation histories.

Desktop Forensics: Disk Encryption

Elcomsoft System Recovery received a major update with enhanced full-disk encryption support. The update made it easy to process full-disk encryption by simply booting from a flash drive. The tool automatically detects full-disk encryption, extracting and saving information required to brute-force passwords to encrypted volumes. In addition, the tool became capable of saving the system’s hibernation file to the flash drive for subsequent extraction of decryption keys for accessing encrypted volumes.

Cloud Forensics: iOS 13 & Authentication Tokens

Elcomsoft Phone Breaker 9.15 added the ability to download iCloud backups created with iPhone and iPad devices running iOS 13 and iPadOS. In addition, the tool became able to extract fully-featured iCloud authentication tokens from macOS computers.

Following this, Elcomsoft Phone Breaker 9.30 delivered a new iCloud downloading engine and low-level access to iCloud Drive data. Thanks to the new iCloud engine, the tool became capable of downloading backups produced by devices running all versions of iOS up to iOS 13.2. While advanced iCloud Drive structure analysis allows users to enable deep, low-level analysis of iCloud Drive secure containers.

Cloud Forensics: Google

Elcomsoft Cloud Explorer 2.20 boosted the number of data types available for acquisition, allowing experts to additionally download a bunch of new types of data. This includes data sources in the Visited tree, Web pages opened on Android devices, requests to Google Assistant in Voice search, Google Lens in Search history, Google Play Books and Google Play Movies & TV.

In iOS forensics, cloud extraction is a viable alternative when physical acquisition is not possible. The upcoming release of iOS 13 brings additional security measures that will undoubtedly make physical access even more difficult. While the ability to download iCloud backups has been around for years, the need to supply the user’s login and password followed by two-factor authentication was always a roadblock.

Some five years ago, we learned how to use authentication tokens to access iCloud backups without a password. In Breaking Into iCloud: No Password Required we discussed the benefits of this approach. During the next years, we learned how to use authentication tokens to access other types of data stored in iCloud including the user’s photo library, browsing history, contacts, calendars and other information that Apple synchronizes across all of the user’s devices that are signed in to the same Apple account.

Many things have changed since then. Tokens can no longer be used to access iCloud backups, period. Tokens cannot be used to access passwords (iCloud Keychain), Screen Time, Health and Messages. Sometime last year Apple pinned authentication tokens to a particular computer, making them usable just from the very PC or Mac they’ve been created on. It took us more than a year to figure out a workaround allowing experts to transfer authentication tokens from the user’s computer. Even today, this workaround is only working if the user had a macOS computer. With this number of restrictions, are authentication tokens still usable? What can you obtain from the user’s iCloud account with an authentication token, and what can be accessed with a login and password? How two-factor authentication affects what’s available in an iCloud account, and why knowing the screen lock passcode (or Mac system password) can help? Keep reading to find out.

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The cloud becomes an ever more important (sometimes exclusive) source of the evidence whether you perform desktop or cloud forensics. Even if you are not in forensics, cloud access may help you access deleted or otherwise inaccessible data.

Similar to smartphones or password-protected desktops, cloud access is a privilege that is supposed to be only available to the rightful account owner. You would need a login and password and possibly the second factor. These aren’t always available to forensic experts. In fact, it won’t be easy to access everything stored in the cloud if you have all the right credentials.

Apple iCloud is one of the most advanced cloud solutions on the market, with lots of services available. These include comprehensive device backups, synchronization services across the entire Apple ecosystem including the Apple TV and Apple Watch devices, file storage, password management, home IoT devices, Health data and more. And it is pretty secure.

Let’s review all the possibilities of accessing Apple iCloud data with or without a password.

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iOS 13 is on the way. While the new mobile OS is still in beta, so far we have not discovered many revolutionary changes in the security department. At the same time, there are quite a few things forensic specialists will need to know about the new iteration of Apple’s mobile operating system. In this article, we’ll be discussing the changes and their meaning for the mobile forensics.

iCloud backups

We’ve seen several changes to iCloud backups that break third-party tools not designed with iOS 13 in mind. Rest assured we’ve updated our tools to support iOS 13 iCloud backups already. We don’t expect the backup format to change once iOS 13 is officially released, yet we keep an eye on them.

First, Apple has changed the protocol and encryption. There’s nothing major, but those changes were more than enough to effectively block all third-party tools without explicit support for iOS 13.

Second, cloud backups (at least in the current beta) now contain pretty much the same set of info as unencrypted local backups. Particularly missing from iCloud backups made with iOS 13 devices are call logs and Safari history. This information is now stored exclusively as “synchronized data”, which makes it even more important for the investigator to extract synced evidence in addition to backups. Interestingly, nothing was changed about synced data; you can still use the same tools and sign in with either Apple ID/password/2FA or authentication tokens. (more…)

We live in the era of mobile devices with full-disk encryption, dedicated security co-processors and multiple layers of security designed to prevent device exploitation. The recent generations of Apple mobile devices running iOS 10 and 11 are especially secure, effectively resisting experts’ efforts to extract evidence. Yet, several solutions are known to counter Apple’s security measures even in iOS 11 and even for the last-generation devices. It is not surprising that Apple comes up with counter measures to restrict the effectiveness and usability of such methods, particularly by disabling USB data connection in iOS 11.4 after prolonged inactivity periods (well, in fact it is still in question whether this feature will be available in new iOS version or not; it seems it is not ready yet, and may be delayed till iOS 12).

Today, we’ll discuss the main challenges of iOS forensics, look at some of the most interesting solutions available to law enforcement, and share our experience gaining access to some of the most securely protected evidence stored in Apple iOS devices. (more…)

Apple has a wonderfully integrated ecosystem. Apple computers, tablets and phones conveniently synchronize information such as passwords, Web browsing history, contacts and call logs across all of the user’s devices. This synchronization mechanism uses iCloud to sync and store information. The syncing mechanism works independently from iOS system backups that are also stored in iCloud (or iCloud Drive). As opposed to daily iCloud backups, synchronized data is updated and propagated across devices in almost real time. Extracting this information can be invaluable for investigations as it provides access to the most up to date information about the user, their activities and whereabouts.

What exactly is synced through iCloud? The screen shot above lists all options available in iOS 11. As you can see, the following types of data are (or can be) synced across Apple devices:

  • Photos (iCloud Photo Library)
  • Mail (iCloud mail only)
  • Contacts, Calendars and Reminders
  • Safari (browsing history, bookmarks and tabs open on other devices)
  • Game Center (profiles, achievements and game progress)
  • Siri (requests, settings)
  • Keychain (iCloud Keychain stores passwords and forms from Safari, iOS system, Apple and some third-party apps, but not Google Chrome)
  • iCloud backups (up to last 3 copies per device, created daily while charging)
  • iBooks, Pages, Numbers and Keynote (e-books, PDF files, documents)
  • Maps (user’s search history, routes and places)
  • Wallet
  • Wi-Fi

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Who am I to tell you to use two-factor authentication on all accounts that support it? This recommendation coming from someone whose business is supplying law enforcement with tools helping them do their job might be taken with a grain of salt by an average consumer. Yet we still strongly believe that, however good a password you have to encrypt your local documents or NAS drives, any remotely popular online service absolutely requires an additional authentication factor.

We covered the risks related to passwords more than once. There is no lack of horror stories floating on the Internet, ranging from leaking private photos to suddenly losing access to all data and devices registered on a certain account. Today, smartphones store excessive amounts of information. If any of that data is synced with a cloud, the data will be shared with something other than just your device.

So what is that “other” thing that you need to secure access to your account? It might be something you have in addition to something you know. Something that cannot be easily stolen or accessed remotely. This is exactly what two-factor authentication is for.

All three major mobile companies, Apple, Google and Microsoft, offer very different implementations of two-factor authentication. Speaking Google, you have several convenient options: SMS (which is not really secure, and Google knows it), the recently added Google Prompt, the classic Google Authenticator app, printable backup codes, FIDO keys and a few more. (Spoiler: if you are on a different side and need to extract the data as opposed to protecting it, we have an app for that).

What about Apple? There are a few things you should definitely know about Apple’s implementation. The problem with Apple is that Apple accounts protected with two-factor authentication can be actually less secure at some points. Surprised? Keep reading.

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Two-factor authentication is essential to secure one’s access to online accounts. We studied multiple implementations of two-factor authentication including those offered by Apple, Google and Microsoft. While Google’s implementation offers the largest number of options, we feel that Apple has the most balanced implementation. The closed ecosystem and the resulting deep integration with the core OS makes it easy for Apple to control exactly how it works and on which devices.

Suppressing the Prompt

Since Apple introduced Two-Factor Authentication (as a replacement of the older and much less secure Two-Step Verification), Apple customers are alerted immediately of someone’s attempt to access their Apple account. A 2FA prompt is pushed instantly and concurrently to all devices the user has in their Apple account once someone attempts to log in. This has always been a hassle for forensic experts trying to perform investigations without alerting the suspect, as merely entering a login and password and seeing a 2FA prompt would mean it’s already too late, as the suspect has been alerted with a prompt.

Or, better to say, it used to be an issue. Just not anymore! Elcomsoft Phone Breaker 8.1, our newest release, now carries out an additional check (which wasn’t exactly easy to make since there is no official API and obviously no documentation), allowing the tool to detect whether or not Two-Factor Authentication is enabled on a given Apple account without triggering a 2FA prompt. The expert will now have the choice of whether to proceed (and potentially alert the suspect) or stop right there.

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Accessing the list of apps installed on an iOS device can give valuable insight into which apps the user had, which social networks they use, and which messaging tools they communicate with. While manually reviewing the apps by examining the device itself is possible by scrolling a potentially long list, we offer a better option. Elcomsoft Phone Viewer can not just display the list of apps installed on a given device, but provide information about the app’s version, date and time of acquisition (first download for free apps and date and time of purchase for paid apps), as well as the Apple ID that was used to acquire the app. While some of that data is part of iOS system backups, data on app’s acquisition time must be obtained separately by making a request to Apple servers. Elcomsoft Phone Viewer automates such requests, seamlessly displaying the most comprehensive information about the apps obtained from multiple sources.

In this how-to guide, we’ll cover the steps required to access the list of apps installed on an iOS device. (more…)

With all attention now being on new iPhone devices, it is easy to forget about the new version of iOS. While new iPhone models were mostly secret until announcement, everyone could test iOS 11 for months before the official release.

Out previous article touches the issue of iOS 11 forensic implications. In this article we’ll cover what you can and what you cannot do with an iOS 11 device as a forensic expert. We’ll talk about which acquisition methods still works and which don’t, what you can and cannot extract compared to iOS 10, and what you need to know in order to make the job don’t.

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