Posts Tagged ‘Two-Factor Authentication’

iOS 11 Does Not Fix iCloud and 2FA Security Problems You’ve Probably Never Heard About

Monday, September 11th, 2017

In the US, Factory Reset Protection (FRP) is a mandatory part of each mobile ecosystem. The use of factory reset protection in mobile devices helped tame smartphone theft by discouraging criminals and dramatically reducing resale value of stolen devices. Compared to other mobile ecosystems, Apple’s implementation of factory reset protection has always been considered exemplary. A combination of a locked bootloader, secure boot chain and obligatory online activation of every iPhone makes iCloud lock one exemplary implementation of factory reset protection.

All one needs to do is enable the Find My Phone option in iCloud settings. In fact, this option is enabled by default once you set up your new iPhone. After that, even if you lose your iPhone and someone else attempts to reset it to factory defaults, the device will be still locked to your iCloud account. Unlocking the device (removing iCloud lock) requires access to your Apple ID, password, and secondary authentication factor if you have Two-Factor Authentication enabled. Sounds pretty secure so far?

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The New Google Authentication Engine in Elcomsoft Cloud Explorer 1.31

Thursday, June 15th, 2017

As you may know, we have recently updated Elcomsoft Cloud Explorer, bumping the version number from 1.30 to 1.31. A very minor update? A bunch of unnamed bug fixes and performance improvements? Not really. Under the hood, the new release has major changes that will greatly affect usage experience. What exactly has changed and why, and what are the forensic implications of these changes? Bear with us to find out.

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The Ugly Side of Two-Factor Authentication

Tuesday, December 20th, 2016

Two-factor authentication is great when it comes to securing access to someone’s account. It’s not so great when it gets in the way of accessing your account. However, in emergency situations things can turn completely ugly. In this article we’ll discuss steps you can do to minimize the negative consequences of using two-factor authentication if you lose access to your trusted device and your trusted phone number. In order to keep the size of this text reasonable we’ll only talk about Apple’s implementation, namely Two-Step Verification and Two-Factor Authentication. You can read more about those in our previous blog post.

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Microsoft Two-Factor Authentication: Always There

Monday, December 19th, 2016

Beginning with Windows 8.1 and Windows Phone 8.1, Microsoft started unifying its mobile and desktop operating systems. No wonder the two versions of Microsoft’s latest OS, Windows 10, share the same approach to two-factor authentication.

Microsoft employs a somewhat unique approach to two-factor authentication. Even if the user does not want to use two-factor authentication and does not set up any secondary authentication methods, in some circumstances Microsoft would still prompt to confirm account login. Just like Google, the company would verify unusual sign-in activities occurring from a new device in another country. However, it’s not just that. Microsoft would also try to verify Microsoft Account activities once the user attempts to restore a new phone (Windows Phone 8.1 or Windows 10 Mobile) from OneDrive backup. Interestingly, Microsoft would do exactly the same verification if one sets up an account on a new PC (desktop, laptop or tablet) and attempts to restore from OneDrive backup.

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Bypassing Apple’s Two-Factor Authentication

Friday, December 16th, 2016

Two-factor authentication a roadblock when investigating an Apple device. Obtaining a data backup from the user’s iCloud account is a common and relatively easy way to acquire evidence from devices that are otherwise securely protected. It might be possible to bypass two-factor authentication if one is able to extract a so-called authentication token from the suspect’s computer.

Authentication tokens are used by iCloud Control Panel that comes pre-installed on macOS computers, as well as iCloud for Windows that can be installed on Windows PCs. Authentication tokens are very similar to browser cookies. They are used to cache authentication credentials, facilitating subsequent logins without asking the user for login and password and without prompting for secondary authentication factors. Authentication tokens do not contain the user’s password, and not even a hash of the password. Instead, they are randomly generated sequences of characters that are used to identify authorized sessions.

Tip: The use of authentication tokens allows bypassing two-factor authentication even if no access to the secondary authentication factor is available.

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Exploring Two-Factor Authentication

Thursday, December 15th, 2016

In this article we’ll discuss the differences between implementations of two-factor authentication in popular mobile platforms. We’ll research how two-factor authentication is implemented in Android, iOS and Windows 10 Mobile, and discuss usability and security implications of each implementation.

What Is Two-Factor Authentication?

Two-factor authentication is an additional security layer protecting access to user accounts in addition to their username and password. In two-factor authentication an extra verification step is required that is separate from the password. Ideally, two-factor authentication schemes would be based on verifying “something you have” in addition to “something you know”. In practical terms this is not always convenient for the end user, so very few straightforward implementations exist (mostly in the banking industry in Europe).

Using the extra verification step based on a piece of information that only the user knows or has access to makes it significantly harder for potential intruders to break in.

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Apple Two-Factor Authentication vs. Two-Step Verification

Friday, April 1st, 2016

Two-step verification and two-factor authentication both aim to help users secure their Apple ID, adding a secondary authentication factor to strengthen security. While Apple ID and password are “something you know”, two-step verification (and two-factor authentication) are both based on “something you have”.

However, Apple doesn’t make it easy. Instead of using a single two-factor authentication solution (like Google), the company went for two different processes with similar usability and slightly different names. What are the differences between the two verification processes, and how do they affect mobile forensics? Let’s try to find out.
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How Secure Is Your Password? A Friendly Advice from a Company That Breaks Passwords

Sunday, February 1st, 2015

A Practical Guide for the Rest of Us

How many passwords does an average Joe or Jane has to remember? Obviously, it’s not just one or two. Security requirements vary among online services, accounts and applications, allowing (or disallowing) certain passwords. Seven years ago, Microsoft determined in a study that an average user  had 6.5 Web passwords, each of which is shared across about four different websites. They’ve also determined that, back then, each user had about 25 accounts that required passwords, and typed an average of 8 passwords per day.

If i got a penny every time i forgot my pwd, I'd be a millionaire

It didn’t change much in 2012. Another study determined that an average person has 26 online accounts, but uses only five passwords to keep them secure, typing about 10 passwords per day. CSID has a decent report on password usage among American consumers, discovering that as many as 54% consumers have five or less passwords, while another 28% reported using 6 to 10 passwords. Only 18% had more than 10 passwords. 61% of all questioned happily reuse their passwords over and over.

This obviously indicates a huge risk, making all these people susceptible to attacks on their passwords. Why do we have this situation, and what should one do to keep one’s life secure against hacker attacks? Let’s try to find out.

Passwords: Plagued with Problems

Passwords are the most common way of securing the many aspects of our lives. However, password-based protection is plagued with problems. Let’s have a look at why passwords are less than perfect when it comes to security. (more…)