Bypassing Apple’s Two-Factor Authentication

December 16th, 2016 by Oleg Afonin

Two-factor authentication a roadblock when investigating an Apple device. Obtaining a data backup from the user’s iCloud account is a common and relatively easy way to acquire evidence from devices that are otherwise securely protected. It might be possible to bypass two-factor authentication if one is able to extract a so-called authentication token from the suspect’s computer.

Authentication tokens are used by iCloud Control Panel that comes pre-installed on macOS computers, as well as iCloud for Windows that can be installed on Windows PCs. Authentication tokens are very similar to browser cookies. They are used to cache authentication credentials, facilitating subsequent logins without asking the user for login and password and without prompting for secondary authentication factors. Authentication tokens do not contain the user’s password, and not even a hash of the password. Instead, they are randomly generated sequences of characters that are used to identify authorized sessions.

Tip: The use of authentication tokens allows bypassing two-factor authentication even if no access to the secondary authentication factor is available.

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Exploring Two-Factor Authentication

December 15th, 2016 by Oleg Afonin

In this article we’ll discuss the differences between implementations of two-factor authentication in popular mobile platforms. We’ll research how two-factor authentication is implemented in Android, iOS and Windows 10 Mobile, and discuss usability and security implications of each implementation.

What Is Two-Factor Authentication?

Two-factor authentication is an additional security layer protecting access to user accounts in addition to their username and password. In two-factor authentication an extra verification step is required that is separate from the password. Ideally, two-factor authentication schemes would be based on verifying “something you have” in addition to “something you know”. In practical terms this is not always convenient for the end user, so very few straightforward implementations exist (mostly in the banking industry in Europe).

Using the extra verification step based on a piece of information that only the user knows or has access to makes it significantly harder for potential intruders to break in.

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Elcomsoft Wireless Security Auditor Gets Wi-Fi Sniffer

December 1st, 2016 by Oleg Afonin

We released a major update to Elcomsoft Wireless Security Auditor, a tool for corporate customers to probe wireless network security. Major addition in this release is the new Wi-Fi sniffer, which now supports the majority of general-use Wi-Fi adapters (as opposed to only allowing the use of a dedicated AirPCap adapter). The built-in Wi-Fi sniffer is a component allowing the tool to automatically intercept wireless traffic, save Wi-Fi handshake packet and perform an accelerated attack on the original WPA/WPA2-PSK password.

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Acquisition of a Locked iPhone with a Lockdown Record

November 28th, 2016 by Oleg Afonin

The previous article was about the theory. In this part we’ll go directly to practice. If you possess a turned on and locked iOS device and have no means of unlocking it with either Touch ID or passcode, you may still be able to obtain a backup via the process called logical acquisition. While logical acquisition may return somewhat less information compared to the more advanced physical acquisition, it must be noted that physical acquisition may not be available at all on a given device.

Important: Starting with iOS 8, obtaining a backup is only possible if the iOS device was unlocked with a passcode at least once after booting. For this reason, if you find an iPhone that is turned on, albeit locked, do not turn it off. Instead, isolate it from wireless networks by placing it into a Faraday bag, and do not allow it to power off or completely discharge by connecting it to a charger (a portable power pack inside a Faraday bag works great until you transfer the device to a lab). This will give you time to searching user’s computers for a lockdown record.

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Forensic Implications of iOS Lockdown (Pairing) Records

November 25th, 2016 by Oleg Afonin

In recent versions of iOS, successful acquisition of a locked device is no longer a given. Multiple protection layers and Apple’s new policy on handling government requests make forensic experts look elsewhere when investigating Apple smartphones.

In this publication, we’ll discuss acquisition approach to an iOS device under these specific circumstances:

  1. Runs iOS 8.x through 10.x
  2. When seized, the device was powered on but locked with a passcode and/or Touch ID
  3. Device was never powered off or rebooted since it was seized
  4. Does not have a jailbreak installed and may not allow installing a jailbreak
  5. Investigators have access to one or more computers to which the iOS device was synced (iTunes) or trusted (by confirming the “Trust this PC” pop-up on the device) in the past

While this list may appear extensive and overly detailed, in real life it simply means an iPhone that was seized in a screen-locked state and stored properly in its current state (i.e. not allowed to power down or reboot). If this is the case, we might be able to access information in the device by using a so-called lockdown file, or pairing record. This record may be available on the suspect’s home or work PC that was either used to sync the iOS device with iTunes or simply used for charging if the suspect ever tapped “OK” on the “Trust this PC” pop-up. Read the rest of this entry »

“We take privacy very seriously” – Apple, we do not buy it, sorry

November 18th, 2016 by Vladimir Katalov

Good news: Apple has officially responded.

Bad news: We don’t buy it. Their response seems to address a different issue; worse, some of the reporters just quoted what Apple said without real understanding of the actual issue. So let’s try to follow the story step by step.

Apple has an option to back up phone data to iCloud. Doing that for many years now. On our side, we have a feature to download iCloud backups. The feature has been there for years, too. We are also able to download everything from iCloud Drive (including data belonging to third-party apps, something that is not available by standard means). We can download media files from iCloud Photo Library (and by the way, we discovered that they were not always deleted, see iCloud Photo Library: All Your Photos Are Belong to Us). Then we started to research how iOS devices sync data with iCloud, and discovered that Apple stores more than they officially say. All iOS versions allow users to choose which bits of data are to be synced – such as contacts, notes, calendars and other stuff. Here is a screen shot from iCloud settings captured on iPhone running iOS 10:


icloud_drive

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iOS Call Syncing: How It Works

November 17th, 2016 by Vladimir Katalov

In our previous article, we figured that iPhone call logs are synced with iCloud. We performed multiple additional tests to try to understand exactly how it works, and are trying to guess why. Read the rest of this entry »

iPhone User? Your Calls Go to iCloud

November 17th, 2016 by Oleg Afonin

iCloud sync is everywhere. Your contacts and calendars, system backups and photos can be stored in the cloud on Apple servers. This time, we discovered that yet another piece of data is stored in the cloud for no apparent reason. Using an iPhone and have an active iCloud account? Your calls will sync with iCloud whether you want it or not. In fact, most users we’ve heard from don’t want this “feature”, yet Apple has no official way to turn off this behavior other than telling people “not using the same Apple ID on different devices”. What’s up with that? Let’s try to find out.

Why It Matters

Ever since the release of iOS 8, Apple declines government requests to extract information. According to Apple, “On devices running iOS 8 and later versions, your personal data is placed under the protection of your passcode. For all devices running iOS 8 and later versions, Apple will not perform iOS data extractions in response to government search warrants because the files to be extracted are protected by an encryption key that is tied to the user’s passcode, which Apple does not possess.”

So far, we had no reasons to doubt this policy. However, we’ve seen Apple moving more and more data into the cloud. iCloud data (backups, call logs, contacts and so on) is very loosely protected, allowing Apple itself or any third party with access to proper credentials extracting this information. Information stored in Apple iCloud is of course available to law enforcement. Read the rest of this entry »

Our First Book is Officially Out

October 10th, 2016 by Oleg Afonin

Today we are super excited: our first book on mobile forensics just got published! The book is called “Mobile Forensics – Advanced Investigative Strategies”, and is about everything you need to successfully acquire evidence from the widest range of mobile devices. Unlike most other books on this subject, we don’t just throw file names or hex dumps at your face. Instead, we discuss the issues of seizing mobile devices and preserving digital evidence before it reaches the lab; talk about acquisition options available in every case, and help you choose the correct acquisition path to extract evidence with least time and minimal risk.

cover

We used our years of expertise in researching and building forensic tools to help our readers better understand the acquisition process. We aimed our book at specialists with beginner to intermediate knowledge of mobile forensics. We did our best to make it a perfect learning and reference tool.
This book is about strategies and tools. We do believe in tools, but we also believe that even the best tool is useless if you don’t have clear understanding on what you are doing, and why. It’s not just about ElcomSoft products: we talk about a wide range of forensic tools covering most mobile devices.

The book is officially out. You are welcome to get your copy by ordering from PACKT Publishing or Amazon.

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